This is indicative of why America is in its present condition.
PERSONAL REFERENCES: For personal references, please speak to my dad or uncle James Baker 
(They can be reached in their offices at the Carlyle Group where they are helping to divide
 up the spoils of the US-Iraq war and plan for the next one.) 
President Bush Ranks Lowest IQ in 50 Years of US Presidents. In a report published Monday, 
the Lovenstein Institute of Scranton, Pennsylvania, detailed its findings of a four-month 
study of the intelligence quotient of President George W. Bush. Since 1973, the Lovenstein 
Institute has published its research to the educational community on each new president, 
which includes the famous "IQ" report among others.  There have been twelve presidents over 
the past 50 years, from F.D. Roosevelt to G.W. Bush, who were rated based on scholarly 
achievements, writings that they produced without aid of staff, their ability to speak with 
clarity, and several other psychological factors, which were then scored using the Swanson/Crain 
system of intelligence ranking. The study determined the following IQs of each president as 
accurate to within five percentage points: In order by presidential term: 

147 .. Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) 
132 .. Harry Truman (D) 
122 .. Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) 
174 .. John F. Kennedy (D) 
126 .. Lyndon B. Johnson (D) 
155 .. Richard M. Nixon (R) 
121 .. Gerald Ford (R) 
175 .. James E. Carter (D) 
105 .. Ronald Reagan (R) 
098 .. George Bush (R) 
182 .. William J. Clinton (D) 
091 .. George W. Bush (R)

The six Republican presidents of the past 50 years had an average IQ of 115.5, 
with President Nixon having the highest at 155. President G.W.  Bush rated the 
lowest of all the Republicans with an IQ of  91. 

The six Democrat presidents had IQs with an average of 156, with President Clinton 
having the highest IQ, at 182. President Lyndon B. Johnson was rated the lowest of 
all the Democrats with an IQ of 126. No president other than Carter (D) has released 
his actual IQ, 176. 

Among comments made concerning the specific testing of President GW Bush, his low 
ratings are due to his apparently difficult command of the English language in public 
statements, his limited use of vocabulary (6,500 words for Bush versus an average of 
11,000 words for other presidents), his lack of scholarly achievements other than a 
basic MBA, and an absence of any body of work which could be studied on an intellectual 
basis. The complete report documents the methods and procedures used to arrive at these 
ratings, including depth of sentence structure and voice stress confidence analysis. 

"All the Presidents prior to George W. Bush had a least one book under their belt, and 
most had written several white papers during their education or early careers. Not so 
with President Bush," Dr. Lovenstein said. "He has no published works or writings, which 
made it more difficult to arrive at an assessment. We relied more heavily on transcripts 
of his unscripted public speaking." The Lovenstein Institute of Scranton Pennsylvania think 
tank includes high caliber historians, psychiatrists, sociologists, scientists in human 
behavior, and psychologists. Among their ranks are Dr. Werner R. Lovenstein, world-renowned 
sociologist, and Professor Patricia F. Dilliams, a world-respected psychiatrist. 

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